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What is the recommended roof pitch for a PV system?

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Optimisation of a photovoltaic system

Check what is the optimal inclination and roof pitch, what types of roofs can support solar panels and in what direction they are placed.

For European weather conditions, it is generally considered that the optimum roof pitch for the PV systems should be in the range of 30-40 degrees. In southern regions of Europe [UsW2] the recommended roof pitch is lower (closer to 30 degrees), and in the north it is closer to 40 degrees. However, the suggested roof angle that will give us good yields also depends on the orientation of the PV panels and the time of year.

Positioning the photovoltaic panels

At what angle should the panels be mounted? What is the optimal and minimum angle of inclination for the modules?

For south facing panels the optimum roof pitch of 30-40 degrees gives the best results. When the pitch is below 30 degrees we have lower losses than when the angle exceeds 40 degrees. However, panels inclined at an angle lower than 30 degrees produce more energy in summer than in winter.

Orientation of the photovoltaic panels

Photovoltaic system oriented east and west?

In case of systems mounted facing east and west we will get greater energy yield in the overall annual calculation if the inclination of the panels is lower than 30 degrees. In addition, it has been found that with a lower angle of inclination the system starts working faster in the early morning hours in comparison with systems inclined at 30 degrees for east and west oriented builds.

What are the highest and lowest yields?

To sum up, systems with non-standard angles (other than 30-40 degrees) generally produce lower yields, when the PV panels are positioned to the south. However the situation changes when the direction of the whole system is different. In such cases we can adjust the inclination of the system in order to achieve better results by using non-standard inclination. The roof pitch is especially important for the production of electricity in winter and summer.


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